1. A Tale of Two Cities was written by Charles Dickens.
2. Phonology: The study of speech sounds in language or a language with reference to their distribution and patterning and to tacit rules governing pronunciation. 音位学； 在语言或一门语言中，对有关其分类和模式以及为大家所默认的发音规则的研究音韵学，音系学
3. Syntax: The study of the rules whereby words or other elements of sentence structure are combined to form grammatical sentences. 句法，研究词或其它句子成分如何联合起来形成合乎语法的句子规则的学科
4. Semantics: The study or science of meaning in language forms.语义学，以语言形式表示意思的研究或科学
5. acronym : 首字母组合词，首字母缩略词，比如，NATO, UNESCO, BASIC,它们可以连拼，但VOA是 Initialism。
6. Metonymy: A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated, as in the use of Washington for the United States government or of the sword for military power. 换喻或转喻，一种，一个词或词组被另一个与之有紧密联系的词或词组替换的修辞方法，如用华盛顿代替美==或用剑代替军事力量，对面来了三个“红领巾”也是，以红领巾指代少先队员。
7. Simile: A figure of speech in which two essentially unlike things are compared, often in a phrase introduced by like or as, as in How like the winter hath my absence been or So are you to my thoughts as food to life （Shakespeare）。明喻， 一种修辞手法，把两种基本不相像的东西进行比较，通常在由 like或 as引导的短语中，如 “我的离开好象是冬天来临”或“你对我的思想就象食物对于生命一样重要”（莎士比亚）
8. Metaphor: A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison, as in a sea of troubles or All the world's a stage（Shakespeare） 隐喻一种语言表达手法，通常用指某物的词或词组来指代他物，从而暗示它们之间的相似之处，如 “忧愁之海”或“整个世界一台戏”（莎士比亚） the ship of desert 沙漠之舟
9. Oxymoron: A rhetorical figure in which incongruous or contradictory terms are combined, as in a deafening silence and a mournful optimist. 矛盾修饰法， 一种把互相矛盾或不调和的词合在一起的修辞手法，如 在震耳欲聋的沉默和悲伤的乐观 cruel kindness
10. The affection name given to the clock tower of the Houses of Parliament, Westminster is Big Ben.
11. John Milton the poet wrote of Adam and Eve's expulsion from the Garden of Eden in Paradise Lost. Paradise Regained was also written by him.
12. Sonnet: A 14-line verse form usually having one of several conventional rhyme schemes. 十四行诗体， 一种由十四行组成的诗歌形式，通常有一种传统的押韵形式， 莎士比亚用过此诗体。
13. Slang: A kind of language occurring chiefly in casual and playful speech, made up typically of short-lived coinages and figures of speech that are deliberately used in place of standard terms for added raciness, humor, irreverence, or other effect. 俚语主要出现在非正式的、游戏性的话语中的一种语言，基本由存在时间很短的派生词和修辞构成，它们被故意地用来取代标准的词语以达到生动、幽默、无礼或其它效果
14. Catch Phrase: A phrase in wide or popular use, especially one serving as a slogan for a group or movement. 警句，妙句，吸引人的词句广泛使用的或流行的用语，尤指用作集团或运动的口号的用语。
15. Jargon: The specialized or technical language of a trade, profession, or similar group. 行话， 一个行业、职业或类似的团体中使用的专业的或技术的语言。
16. Platitude: A trite or banal remark or statement, especially one expressed as if it were original or significant. 陈腔滥调， 陈腐的或平庸的评论或陈述，尤指某人表述它时好象它是新颖的或有意义的
17. Hyperbole: A figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect, as in I could sleep for a year or This book weighs a ton. 夸张法，一种比喻，使用夸张来强调或产生某种效果，比如在我能睡一年或这书有一吨重
18. onomatopoeia: The formation or use of words such as buzz or murmur that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actions they refer to. 象声词， 词的构成或用法，例如 buzz或 nurmur模仿事物或行动的声音。
19. hypotaxis: 从属关系
20. parataxis: 并列结构，指 短语或分句间不用连词， 如：I came, I saw, I conquered.
21. Transcendentalism: A literary and philosophical movement, associated with Ralph Waldo Emerson and Margaret Fuller, asserting the existence of an ideal spiritual reality that transcends the empirical and scientific and is knowable through intuition. 超验主义， 一种文学和哲学运动，与拉尔夫？沃尔多？爱默生和玛格丽特？富勒有关，宣称存在一种理想的精神实体，超越于经验和科学之处，通过直觉得以把握
22. Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote the Scarlet Letter. 美国
23. Morphology: The study of the structure and form of words in language or a language, including inflection, derivation, and the formation of compounds.词法，词态学，形态音位学， 语言或某一语言中对于单词的结构和形式的研究，包括词尾变化、派生和合成词的构成
24. affricate: A complex speech sound consisting of a stop consonant辅音 followed by a fricative摩擦； for example, the initial sounds of child and joy. 塞擦音由闭塞音伴随着摩擦音而形成的复杂的语音；例如 child和 joy的第一个音Also called: affricative.
25. Vanity Fair 名利场 was written William Makepeace Thackray
26. Neil Armstrong was the first person to walk on the moon. Edwin Aldrin, Michael Collins
27. The title of the national anthem 国歌 of Canada is O Canada. 此种类型题同学们可自己多找几个国家。
28. Henry David Thoreau's work, Walden, has always been regarded as a masterpiece of New England Transcendentalism.
29. etymology: the history of a word. 词源学
30. The dominant accent in the United States is General American. 除纽约市、南方、新英格兰
31. John Lennon is a member of the band of Beatles 披头士或甲壳虫乐队in the 1960s.
32. In Gulliver's Travels格列佛游记， Jonathan Swift describes the island of the Houyhnhnms as the world's most perfect society. 有理智和人性的马 Houyhnhnms are horses in fact.
33. Ceoffrey Chaucer wrote Canterbury Tales in fourteenth century.
34. morpheme: A meaningful linguistic unit consisting of a word, such as man, or a word element, such as -ed in walked, that cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts. 词素， 一种含有一个单词的有意义的语言单位，如 -ed在单词 walked中，不能被划分为更小的有意义单位
35. The name of the famous stadium露天体育场 in the north of London is Wembley.
36. Wimbledon温布尔登[英国英格兰东南部城市]（位于伦敦附近， 是着名的国际网球比赛地）
37. Toad in the hole is a Traditional English recipe食谱， originating from Yorkshire, a county in the north of England. 烤面拖牛肉，面拖烤香肠
38. Boycott: To act together in abstaining from using, buying, or dealing with as an expression of protest or disfavor or as a means of coercion（强制）。 联合抵制， 联合起来拒绝使用、购买或经销以示抗议、不满或作为强制的手段
39. Segregation: The policy and practice of imposing the social separation of races, as in schools, housing, and industry, especially so as to practice discrimination against people of color in a predominantly white society. 种族隔离， 强制实行种族的社会分离政策及实践，如在学校、居住和工业中，尤指在白人居多的社会中实行有色人种歧视的政策
40. Apartheid: An official policy of racial segregation practiced in the Republic of South Africa, involving political, legal, and economic discrimination against nonwhites. 种族隔离制， 南非共和国实行的一种官方的种族隔离政策，包括在政治、法律和经济诸方面对非白色人种的歧视。
41. Integration: The bringing of people of different racial or ethnic groups into unrestricted and equal association, as in society or an organization; desegregation. 种族或宗教融合， 在社会或组织中，使不同的种族或宗教派别的人处于无限制的平等的关系中；取消种族隔离
42. The majority of French-speaking Canadians live in Quebec.
43. Sir Thomas More coined the word “Utopia”， it means nowhere land in Greek.
44. The Hemingway Code heroes are best remembered for their indestructible spirit.
45. Phoneme: any one of the set of smallest distinctive speech sounds in a language that distinguish one word from another 音位，音素， 语言中最小的语音单位，如英语里 mat中的 m和 bat中的 b
46. polysemy: 一词多义
47. patron saint：保护圣徒， 守护神
48. Parentese: 父母语
49. back formation: 逆构词 脱落一词的词缀以构成新词 typewriter → typewrite
50. allomorph: Any of the variant forms of a morpheme. For example, the phonetic s of cats, z of dogs, and z of horses and the en of oxen are allomorphs of the English plural morpheme. 语素变体， 语素的一种变体形式，如语音学的中之 s在 cats中，z在 dogs中，和 iz在 horses中，还有 en在 oxen中都是英语复数语素的语素变体。作者: 浮音 时间: 2013-12-21 17:09